Timberlands | Key Definitions
Our Vision For The Responsible Management Of Timberlands
Artificial Regeneration. Artificial regeneration is the renewal of a forest by planting or direct seeding. It is the establishment of a new stand of trees by planting seeds or seedlings by hand or machine.
Even-Aged Management. An even-aged management is forestry method in which all trees in an area are harvested at one time or in several cuttings over a short time to produce stands that are all the same or nearly the same age. This management method is commonly applied to shade-intolerant conifers and hardwoods.
Forest Stewardship Program. A forest stewardship program is a cooperative, technical-assistance program designed to encourage multiple resource management on private forestland. Emphasis is placed on pre-harvest planning to enhance and protect forest-based resources. Authorized under the 1990 Farm Bill, the program is based on national guidelines but is set by individual states.
Hardwood. Hardwoods are trees with broad, flat leaves as opposed to coniferous or needled trees. Wood hardness varies among the hardwood species, and some are actually softer than some softwoods.
Mixed Stand. A mixed stand refers to a timber stand in which less than 80% of the trees in the main canopy are of a single species.
Natural Regeneration. A natural regeneration refers to a stand of trees grown from natural seed fall or sprouting.
Pre-Commercial Thinning. Pre-commercial thinning is the cutting of trees from a young stand so that the remaining trees will have more room to grow to marketable size. Trees cut in a pre-commercial thinning have no commercial value, and normally none of the felled trees are removed for utilization. The primary intent is to improve growth potential for the trees left after thinning.
Pulpwood. A wood (pine or hardwood) used in making pulp and paper.
Reforestation. Reforestation is the reestablishing a forest by planting or seeding an area from which forest vegetation has been removed.
Sawtimber. A sawlog or sawtimber is a log or tree that is large enough (usually 10 to 12 inches in diameter) to be sawed into lumber. The minimum log length is typically eight feet.
Silviculture. Silviculture is the art, science, and practice of establishing, tending, and reproducing forest stands of desired characteristics. It is based on knowledge of species' characteristics and environmental requirements.
Site Preparation. Site preparation is the process of getting land ready for planting, direct seeding, or natural reproduction by burning, chemical vegetation control, or by mechanical operations such as disking, bedding, scarifying, windrowing, or raking.
Softwood. A softwood is a tree belonging to the order coniferales. Softwood or coniferous trees are usually evergreen, bear cones, and have needles or scale-like leaves. They include pine, spruce, fir, and cedar trees.
Sustained Yield. Sustained yield is the management of forestland to produce a relatively constant amount of wood products, revenue, or wildlife.
Thinning. Thinning is a tree removal practice that reduces tree density and competition between trees in a stand. Thinning improves the growth of a smaller number of high-quality trees, provides periodic income; and generally enhances tree vigor. Heavy thinning can benefit wildlife through the increased growth of ground vegetation.
Uneven-Aged Management. Uneven-ages management is a silvicultural system in which individual trees originate at different times and result in a forest with trees of all ages and sizes. Harvest cuts are on an individual-tree selection basis.